PLoS One 12;13 Epub Nov Despite a recent shift in school going adolescents' engagement in health compromising behaviours and their related socio-economic implications on developing societies, it is surprising that baseline information for planned interventions is sparse.
Definitions[ edit ] Alcohol abuse is a drinking disorder. They state the risk of suicide is high in older men who have a history of drinking, as well as those suffering from depression. Certain features of alcohol abuse include failure to fulfill responsibilities at work, school, or home; drinking in dangerous situations, including the operation of a motor vehicle; legal concerns associated with alcohol use; and continued drinking despite problems that are caused or worsened by drinking.
Alcohol abuse can lead to alcohol dependence. For adolescents, the DSM-5 proposes that diagnoses meeting 2 or 3 criteria would be similar to alcohol abuse while meeting over 4 criteria would be equivalent to alcohol dependence when compared to the DSM-IV. Alcohol abuse has both short-term and long-term risks.
If a person drives while drunk or regularly consuming binge drink more than five standard drinks in one drinking sessionthey are considered to have been involved in alcohol abuse.
Short-term abuses of alcohol include, but are not limited to, violenceinjuries, unprotected sexual activities and, additionally, social and financial problems. A smaller volume of consumed alcohol has a greater impact on the older adult than it does on a younger individual.
As a result, the American Geriatrics Society recommends for an older adult with no known risk factors less than one drink a day or fewer than two drinks per occasion regardless of gender,    this is less than current recommendations of maximum alcohol consumption per week, for adults noted to be nine drinks for a male and seven for a female.
Binge drinking In the USA, binge drinking is defined as consuming more than five units in men and four units in women. It increases chances for vandalismfights, violent behaviours, injuries, drunk drivingtrouble with policenegative health, social, economic, or legal consequences to occur.
This is known as alcohol dependency. Long-term effects of alcohol Individuals with an alcohol use disorder will often complain of difficulty with interpersonal relationships, problems at work or school, and legal problems.
Additionally, people may complain of irritability and insomnia. However, while these findings are often present, they are not necessary to make a diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Signs of alcohol abuse show its drastic effects on the central nervous system, including inebriation and poor judgment; chronic anxiety, irritability, and insomnia.
Prolonged use leads to cirrhosis and liver failure. With cirrhosis, patients develop an inability to process hormones and toxins. The derangements of the endocrine system lead to the enlargement of the male breasts. The inability to process toxins leads to liver disease, such as hepatic encephalopathy.
Alcohol abuse can result in brain damage which causes impairments in executive functioning such as impairments to working memory, visuospatial skills, and can cause an abnormal personality as well as affective disorders to develop.
The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, difficulty with perceiving vocal emotions and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.
Alcohol is the most significant health concern in Native American communities because of very high rates of alcohol dependence and abuse; up to 80 percent of suicides and 60 percent of violent acts are a result of alcohol abuse in Native American communities.
Pregnancy[ edit ] A label on alcoholic drinks promoting zero alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol abuse among pregnant women causes their baby to develop fetal alcohol syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the pattern of physical abnormalities and the impairment of mental development which is seen with increasing frequency among children with alcoholic mothers.
Surviving infants may suffer severe abnormalities such as abnormal eyes, fissures, lips and incomplete cerebella. Some infants may develop lung disease. It is even possible that the baby throughout pregnancy will develop heart defects such as ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect.
However, other organizations advise complete abstinence from alcohol while pregnant.
Abstract. Alcohol consumption had been linked to the risk of gout theoretically, but the results from observational studies were conflicting. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of gout. The Global status report on alcohol and health presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States. It represents a continuing effort by the World Health Organization. Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences.
About half of grade 12 students have been drunk, and a third binge drink. Its symptoms include troublesome behaviour in school, constantly lying, learning disabilities and social impairments. One study suggests that girls were scrutinized for "drinking like men", whereas magazines that target the male population sent underlying messages to boys and or men that drinking alcohol was "masculine".
Bogren,  Causes[ edit ] The cause of alcohol abuse is complex. Alcohol abuse is related to economic and biological origins and is associated with adverse health consequences. Another influencing factor among adolescents and college students are the perceptions of social norms for drinking; people will often drink more to keep up with their peers, as they believe their peers drink more than they actually do.
They might also expect to drink more given the context e. Often both the alcohol misuse and psychological problems need to be treated at the same time. However, the altered or intoxicated state of the abuser prevents the full consciousness necessary for healing.
The developing adolescent brain is at increased risk of brain damage and other long-lasting alterations to the brain. Now research has suggested that sex steroid hormone levels may play a role in this interaction.NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis Trafc Safetyacts Data New ersey Avenue SE.
Washington, DC Alcohol-Impaired Driving. Drivers are considered to be alcohol-impaired when their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) are alcohol . Statistical Analysis of Alcohol-Related Driving Trends, per capita alcohol consumption, and external factors (i.e., day of the week, time of day, roadway function class, and posted speed limit).
SAS Statistical analysis software produced by SAS Institute, Inc. iv. Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis Lisa Jones 1 .
NIDA does not conduct research on alcohol; for more information, please visit the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
Statistical analysis Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between categories of baseline alcohol intake and the subsequent incidence of depression during follow-up.
Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated .
Alcohol was a factor in between 19% and 37% of violent crimes from to The proportion of violence involving alcohol as well as the rate of alcohol-related violence has declined over the .